Submission to Foreign Policy Minister Julie Bishop
by Dr. Lilliana Corredor
Founder, Scientists for the Mekong. March 29, 2017
(Edited April 3, 2017)
Facts: DFAT provides Funds & Encourages Hydropower Dam Development in the Mekong River Basin, specifically in Laos, as per document below.
*** DFAT (Publications, 2015). Laos Hydropower and Mining Technical Assistance: final evaluation report – 5 Nov 2015. http://dfat.gov.au/about-us/publications/Pages/laos-hydropower-and-mining-technical-assistance-final-evaluation-report.aspx
Q1: Is it ethical and the best use of Australian money to provide funding for Hydropower Dams in major tributaries of the Mekong River in Laos, and work in tandem with the main Chinese Hydropower Dam Developer “Sinohydro” – while there’s mounting scientific evidence of:
- The disastrous social, economic and environmental Impacts of Hydropower Dams on the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) and its people?
- The crippling long-term debts incurred by Laos & Cambodia for loans by China and Thailand to pay for the Dams and infrastructure? And
- The rampant violation of Human Rights by China, Laos and Cambodia associated with Dam construction?
Q2: Shouldn’t DFAT support Vietnam and the 20 million people that live on the Mekong Delta by calling for a STOP to Dam construction in the LMB? That is, should Australia reject the economic hardship caused by the potential collapse of the Mekong River Delta – through the loss of land and properties by salt intrusion and rising sea levels – leading to a massive Humanitarian Crisis with the displacement of 7-14 Million people? Thus, an “Environmental Refugee Exodus” of an unprecedented scale?
Q3: Shouldn’t an important Department such as DFAT adhere to the truth and facts when publishing Foreign Policy in its website?
See *** DFAT – Enabling regional economic cooperation and inclusive growth in South-East Asia – 19 April 2016. http://dfat.gov.au/geo/east-asia/development-assistance/Pages/enabling-regional-economic-cooperation-south-east-asia-region.aspx
In this webpage, DFAT claims:
“Australia’s Mekong Water Resources Program will continue to help develop and better manage the region’s water resources for greater economic opportunities as well as to protect the 60 million people that rely directly on the Mekong River for their livelihoods. Hydropower development is vital for the economic future of countries of the Mekong Basin, and its transparent management is critical to the stability of countries and regional links. Through targeted investments in quality planning, our program is helping countries of the region build hydropower dams sustainably.”
DFAT’s above statements are FALSE and MISLEADING, as explained below:
1. Australia is NOT “helping the better management of water resources in the Mekong basin”. Well on the contrary, DFAT is helping RUIN the Water Resources by promoting and funding Dams! See impacts below.
2. DFAT is not helping create “greater economic opportunities” for the benefit of the Mekong people. But rather, for the benefit of the Elite, the Chinese Developers, Companies and Banks. In fact, DFAT is helping HARM the economies of Cambodia and Vietnam long-term through:
- Loss of fisheries and agricultural revenue, which will only get worse.
- By helping put these countries into enormous crippling debt with China and Thailand to finance the Dams and infrastructure needed.
- Through the sinking of the Mekong Delta by lack of upstream sediments blocked by the Dams, leading to Salt intrusion by rising sea levels. This in turn, ruins the land and makes it unusable, having already forced the exodus of thousands of farmers from the Delta to the cities in 2016.
- Dams retaining water have resulted in parts drying up and damaging the Tonle Sap Lake wetlands: vital fisheries nurseries to the Mekong River. Hence, affecting the economy and the poorest people dependent on fisheries, by loss of food supply.
3. Claiming to “protect the 60 Million people that rely directly on the Mekong River for their livelihoods” is scandalous and dishonest. Instead, DFAT is doing exactly the opposite: you are jeopardizing the vital Food Security, Water supply and productive riparian areas on which 60 Million people depend!
4. Hydropower is NOT VITAL for the future of LMB countries! Other sources of energy can be used, including Solar, Wind, Bio-Fuel & even Micro-hydro.
5. Transparent management of Hydropower in the region? Really? For over a decade now DFAT’s Trade partner China, has been promoting repression in the region, resulting in lack of transparency and information blackout. Furthermore, Chinese Developers, Thai Developers and Malaysian Developers have not fulfilled their contractual duties to the displaced communities: the compensation packages are dismal, training has not eventuated, resettlement land offered is non-arable so people cannot even grow their food!
Moreover, Developers have not undertaken Free Prior Informed Consent nor Community consultation of any kind until AFTER starting the construction of the Dams. Also, by not allowing information or even visits to the Dam sites not even by journalists. Where is the transparency in the above? Exactly how is DFAT helping achieve transparency?
6. Planning hasn’t worked out in Laos as per your own report (above), because the Laotians don’t care and don’t follow up.
7. There is no such thing as “building Hydropower Dams sustainably“… This statement is OUTRAGEOUS!
Dams preclude Sustainability, as per its definition:
“Sustainability (from sustain and ability) is the property of biological systems to REMAIN DIVERSE and PRODUCTIVE INDEFINITELY. Long-lived and healthy rivers, wetlands and forests are examples of sustainable biological systems.”
Hydropower Dams in the Mekong River Basin are already fragmenting the river; reducing Biodiversity, Productivity and Fisheries; creating droughts; damaging Wetlands and Floodplains; and sinking the Delta, to mention a few!
How is this sustainable?
See more information and articles that support our statements below.
Overview of Hydropower Dams Impacts & Supporting articles:
1) Hydropower Dams Environmental impacts: BLOCK Fish Migrations, Sediments, Nutrients, Change the Hydrology, Change the Geo-morphology of the rivers, and reduce Water supply downstream and constantly change the water levels disrupting the stability of the ecosystems. Given that the key to productivity of the Mekong is FLOODING and the sediments and nutrients carried by the waters and spread out throughout the floodplains and tributaries, the reduced floods are having serious deleterious effects (and dozens of planned dams are not yet built). That is, decreased productivity, depleted fisheries and reduced biodiversity in the Mekong River and tributaries. Effectively, Hydropower is putting at RISK the Food Security & Water Supply of 60 Million people! Hence, Oz is helping create a Humanitarian Crisis like never before seen!
Please don’t tell us that the Dam engineering has been fixed to allow fish and sediment passage. Below we provide studies that show they do not work! Besides,not all sediments accumulate at the Dam wall. The majority of sediments are spread in the bottom of the huge reservoirs, so will not be going down the Dam improvements any time soon! See supporting studies below.
2) Hydropower Dams have INCREASED POVERTY in Laos and Cambodia among displaced communities instead of benefiting them.
Please do NOT use the excuse of “Reducing Poverty & increasing Quality of Life”. There are several studies in Laos and Cambodia that PROVE that POVERTY HAS INCREASED with different Dams, with Women and children suffering the most! See supporting studies below.
3) Hydropower Dams are constant sources of Green House Gases – i.e. Methane, CO2, Nitrous Oxide. Hydropower is NOT Green & Clean Energy, as advertised by China and Australia to justify the construction of more Dams.
Far from it. In fact, one large Dam produces more GHG than a coal plant! These GHG trigger more Climate warming, resulting in rising sea levels. This in turn, infiltrate the Delta and ruin very productive land, displaces millions of people and ruins the economy of Vietnam… See supporting studies below.
4) Hydropower Dams are posing a serious threat to the viability of the Mekong Delta, the most productive area of the River, the Granary of SE Asia, home to 20 Million people.
Studies’ results indicate that hydropower development dominates the changes in floodplain sediment dynamics of the Mekong Delta, while sea level rise has the smallest effect. The Delta is already sinking, lost nearly 1 Million hectares to seawater intrusion in 2016. If it SINKS by 1meter, 7-14 MILLION people will be displaced & become “Environmental Refugees” – homeless, jobless, hungry. A man-made, partly Australian funded and promoted, Humanitarian crisis without precedent is taking place now and will get worse if any more Dams are built! See supporting studies below.
5) Hydropower Dams in Laos & Cambodia are being built on Human Rights Violations and Repression. Where communities displaced by Dams have NO voice, nor real consultation- despite false claims by the governments. They are forcefully evicted and resettled against their will. Resettlement villages offer non-arable barren land, are over 25Km from the River they know, and often, have no electricity. People can’t grow food, can’t fish and have no money to buy food… How are they to survive? China says they will have to change from a “subsistence living” and adopt a “Market life style”. Promised training has not been consistent nor does it include all displaced people, leaving most hungry. See supporting studies below.
6) Hydropower Development in the Mekong Basin is focused on “Trade Agreements”, which supersede the needs of the people and the environment. The Chinese Government has State Owned Enterprises (SOEs) such as the biggest Hydropower dam Developer in the World “Sinohydro”, and others. Chinese companies unashamedly and openly offer “donations” of great amounts of money to Political Parties, Rich influential individuals (the Elite), Companies and Government Officials to push their projects.
A well known case is Cambodian Tycoon, Kith Meng, Chairman of The Royal Group in partnership with a Chinese Corporate Group: together they are building with Chinese Developer “Hydrolancang”, the Lower Sesan 2 Dam in a major tributary of the Mekong. This partnership is awaiting authorization by the Cambodian Government to go ahead with the 3 most damaging Dams for the Mekong River:
the Sekong Dam, Stung Treng Dam and Sambor Dam.
Another case is Australian Foreign Affairs & Trade Minister Julie Bishop (DFAT) who received $500,00 dollars in “Donations” from Chinese Businessmen over the past 2 years for ‘undisclosed’ deals. This:
- Ratifies our suspicion about the Chinese Government influencing Australian business & politics.
- Explains the joint Hydropower projects in Laos between #DFAT & Dam Developer #Sinohydro.
- Confirms our assertions that #Hydropower Development in the Mekong basin is about “Trade Agreements”. And
- We can now add: “Chinese Businessmen offer BRIBES and Trade official receive them”!
Australian DFAT must STOP any involvement in Hydropower Development in SE Asia to avoid being partly responsible for economic and irreversible environmental damages to the Lower Mekong River Basin, resulting in a massive Humanitarian Crisis.
DFAT wouldn’t be representing or abiding by the “compassionate principles that characterize the Australian people” if it persists in condoning and funding an environmental, economic and social disaster!
Australian Tax payers dollars would be better used on urgently needed sewage treatment systems in the Mekong Delta & Tonle Sap Lake areas, to improve water quality and reduce disease.
NOTES Post “LIVE” Q&A
DFAT Foreign Policy White Paper Live Q&A with Foreign Minister Bishop was a disappointment.
Mrs. Bishop emphasized “it is very important for the Government to get the views of Australians”. Yet, the “Community Consultation” lasted 30 minutes! So much for Democracy!
Julie Bishop insisted that Australia’s Foreign Policy is totally aimed at “Reducing Poverty”, “Enhancing the lives of our neighbours”, “Helping Create Economic Growth and Prosperity for all”... Not quite the on-ground reality.
This Submission was not mentioned. Bishop did not reply to controversial questions, and the short time allocated ensured there was no time!
We hope that by sending this Submission as a “Paper Document” addressed to her office, she may consider replying to our questions.
1) Hydropower Dams Environmental impacts
* Räsänen, T.A. et al. (2017). Observed river discharge changes due to hydropower operations in the Upper Mekong Basin. Journal of Hydrology (2017). DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.12.023 Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2017-01-chinese-hydropower-considerably-season-decreased.html#jCp
* Withington, J. (2017). Anthropogenic Rivers: The Production of Uncertainty in Lao Hydropower. Under review. Download here: https://www.academia.edu/30184712/Anthropogenic_Rivers_The_Production_of_Uncertainty_in_Lao_Hydropower
* Corredor, L. (2017). Open Letter to the Mekong River Commission. https://www.scientists4mekong.com/open-letter-to-the-mekong-river-commission/
* Viet Ecology Foundation (2017). Rebuttal to MRC CEO Statement: “Hydropower Development Will Not Kill the Mekong River”. Mekong Eye, March 13, 2017. https://www.mekongeye.com/2017/03/13/rebuttal-to-mrc-ceo-statement-hydropower-development-will-not-kill-the-mekong-river/
* Laos sees little problem with the Pak Beng Dam. Radio Free Asia, Fe. 27, 2017. http://www.rfa.org/english/news/laos/laos-sees-little-02272017145242.html
* Environmental Experts Voice Concern About Effects of Dam Projects in Cambodia. Radio Free Asia, March 16, 2017. http://www.rfa.org/english/news/cambodia/environmental-experts-voice-concern-about-effects-of-dam-projects-in-cambodia-03162017163740.html
* Lovgren, S. (2017). Can the Amazon of Southeast Asia Be Saved? National Geographic, News, March 22, 2017. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/03/mekong-river-basin-sustainable-development-megafish-zeb-hogan/
* Liu Qin (2017). Source of Mekong, Yellow and Yangtze Rivers drying up. China Dialogue, March 8, 2017. https://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/en/9654-Source-of-Mekong-Yellow-and-Yangtze-rivers-drying-up#.WMD7X3Fb7ZI.twitter
* Mekong Giant Catfish being driven to extinction in natural habitat. The Nation, January 20, 2016. http://www.nationmultimedia.com/news/national/30304563
* Piman, T., Cochrane, T. A., and Arias, M. E. (2016). Effect of Proposed Large Dams on Water Flows and Hydropower Production in the Sekong, Sesan and Srepok Rivers of the Mekong Basin. River Res. Applic., 32: 2095–2108. doi:10.1002/rra.3045. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/wol1/doi/10.1002/rra.3045/abstract
* Mousset E., Rogers V., Saray S., Ouch K., Srey S., Mith S, Baran E. (2016). Role and value of fish in the welfare of rural communities in Cambodia (welfare data analysis). Inland Fisheries Research and Development Institute (Fisheries Administration) and WorldFish. Phnom Penh, Cambodia. 102 pages. http://www.worldfishcenter.org/content/roles-and-values-fish-rural-welfare-cambodia-welfare-data-analysis
* Baran, E. & G. Gallego (2015). Cambodia’s fisheries: a decade of changes and evolution. Catch and Culture Volume 21, No. 3: 30-33. December 2015. Download here: http://www.worldfishcenter.org/content/cambodias-fisheries-decade-changes-and-evolution
* Intralawan,A., D. Wood and R. Frankel (2015). Working Paper on Economic, Environmental and Social Impacts of Hydropower Development in the Lower Mekong Basin. Natural Resources and Environmental Management Research and Training Center, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, Thailand, 15pp. Also known as the “EESI Report”.
* Baran E., Guerin E. & Nasielski J. (2015). Fish, sediment and dams in the Mekong – How hydropower development affects water productivity and food supply. Penang, Malaysia: WorldFish, and CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE). 108 pp. https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/71117
Download here: http://pubs.iclarm.net/resource_centre/Fish-sediment-and-dams-in-the-mekong.pdf
* Final Report – Study on the Impacts of Mainstream Hydropower on the Mekong River – Impact Assessment Report. – Report prepared by Malmgren-Hansen, A. (DHI), Anwar Khan (HDR) & Kim Wium Olesen (DHI) for the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, Vietnam (VNMC)
– 18 January 2016.
In: Comments on: Final Report – Study on the Impacts of Mainstream Hydropower Dams on the Mekong River – Impact Assessment Report. L. Corredor – on behalf of Scientists for the Mekong- January, 26, 2016.
* Keskinen, M. et al. (2015). Water-Energy-Food Nexus in a Transboundary River Basin: The Case of Tonle Sap Lake, Mekong River Basin. Water, 7 (10), 5416-5436; doi:10.3390/w7105416
* Welcomme, R.L. et al. (2015). Fisheries of the rivers of Southeast Asia – Chapter 3.24 – In: Freshwater Fisheries Ecology – Editor John F. Craig, Sept. 2015, Wiley Online Library
* Kim Geheb’s Thoughts on the Greater Mekong River Basin – 22 Oct 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YgKi8eYPq0Q
* M.E. Arias, et al. (2014). Dams on Mekong tributaries as significant contributors of hydrological alterations to the Tonle Sap Floodplain in Cambodia – Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., (HESSD), 11: 2177–2209
Download here: http://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci-discuss.net/11/2177/2014/hessd-11-2177-2014.pdf
* Zarfl C, Lumsdon A.E., Berlekamp J, Tydecks L, Tockner K. (2014). A global boom in hydropower dam construction. Aquatic Sciences 77: 161–170.
Download here: A global boom in hydropower dam construction – AIDA. https://www.google.com.au/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwiCkPeq_tfPAhXGGT4KHWk0BzMQFggdMAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.aida-americas.org%2Fsites%2Fdefault%2Ffiles%2Fart%25253A10.1007%25252Fs00027-014-0377-0.pdf&usg=AFQjCNH-yX3hDXrklldUayNt2fsPvH199A&sig2=x2fhOlNbB5Lkp7ivsF314w
* Ziv, G. et al. (2012). Trading-off fish biodiversity, food security, and hydropower in the Mekong River Basin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Apr 10; 109(15): 5609–5614. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1201423109
* Cambodian Contractor Proposes Logging Forest to be Cleared For Hydropower Dam. RFA, April 28, 2015. http://www.rfa.org/english/news/cambodia/logging-04282015141322.html
* Pukinskis, I.L. and Geheb, K. (2012). The impacts of dams on the fisheries of the Mekong. State of Knowledge Series 1. Vientiane, CGIAR Challenge Program on Water and Food. Available here: https://cgspace.cgiar.org/bit
* Pelicice, F.M. & C.S, Agostinho (2012). Deficient downstream passage through fish ladders: the case of Peixe Angical Dam, Tocantins River, Brazil. Neotrop. ichthyol. vol.10 no.4 Porto Alegre Oct. 2012
* M.J. Noonan, J.W.A. Grant & C.D. Jackson (2012). A quantitative assessment of fish passage efficiency. Fish and Fisheries (Impact Factor: 8.26). 12/2012; 13(4).
* Martins da Silva, L.G. et al. (2012), Fish passage post-construction issues: analysis of distribution, attraction and passage efficiency metrics at the Baguari Dam fish ladder to approach the problem. Neotrop. ichthyol. vol.10 no.4, Porto Alegre Oct. 2012
* Dugan, P. (2008a). Examining the barrier effects of mainstream dams to fish migration in the Mekong, with an integrated perspective to the design of mitigation measures (Conclusions from an independent Expert Group Meeting). Presentation at Regional Multi-Stakeholder Consultation of the MRC Hydropower Programme, 25-27 September 2008 in Vientiane, Lao PDR.
* Barlow, C. (2008). Dams, ﬁsh and ﬁsheries in the Mekong River Basin. Catch & Culture, vol 14, no 2, September, Mekong River Commission, Vientiane, Laos.
* Kummu M., J. Koponen & J. Sarkkula (2008). Upstream Impacts On Lower Mekong Floodplains: Tonle Sap Case Study. AMBIO A Journal of the Human Environment (Impact Factor: 2.29). 06/2008; 37(3):185-92.
* Baran E. and B. Ratner (2007). The Don Sahong Dam and Mekong Fisheries. A science brief from the WorldFish Center, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
* WWF (2011). Mekong dolphin on the verge of extinction – August 2011 http://www.wildlifeextra.com/go/news/mekong-dolphin-2011.html#cr
2) Hydropower Dams have INCREASED POVERTY
* Manorom, K, Baird, I.G. & Shoemaker, B. (2017). The World Bank, Hydropower-based Poverty Alleviation and Indigenous Peoples: On-the-Ground Realities in the Xe Bang Fai River Basin of Lao. Forum for Development Studies, DOI:10.1080/08039410.2016.1273850 – Download here: https://www.academia.edu/30734681/The_World_Bank_Hydropower-based_Poverty_Alleviation_and_Indigenous_Peoples_On-the-_Ground_Realities_in_the_Xe_Bang_Fai_River_Basin_of_Laos
* Corredor, L. (2017). Podcast on “The Mekong Ecocide” – 55min. interview on the Mekong River and impacts of Hydropower. http://resistanceradioprn.podbean.com/e/resistance-radio-lilliana-corredor-031217/
* Baird, I.G., B. P. Shoemaker & K. Manorom (2015). The People and their river, the World Bank and its dam: Revisiting the Xe Bang Fai River in Laos. Development and Change 46(5): 1080-1105.
* Baird, I.G & N. Quastel (2015). Rescaling and Reordering Nature–Society Relations: The Nam Theun 2 Hydropower Dam and Laos–Thailand Electricity Networks. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, DOI: 10.1080/00045608.2015.1064511.
Link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00045608.2015.1064511
* The World Bank and Dams – Part 2: Dispelling Myths of Nam Theun 2 – Sept. 2015. International Rivers. http://www.internationalrivers.org/files/attached-files/nt2_factsheet_2015_web.pdf
* Shoemaker, B.P., I.G. Baird & K. Manorom (2014). Nam Theun 2: The World Bank’s narrative of success falls apart – In: World Rivers Review, International Rivers – December 2014
* Blake, D. (2016). “Welcome to Sayabouly – Land of Elephants & Dams” – April 8, 2016
* Green W. N & I.G. Baird (2016). Capitalizing on Compensation: Hydropower Resettlement and the Commodification and Decommodification of Nature–Society Relations in Southern Laos.– 8 April 2016, Academia.edu
* Katus, S., D. Suhardiman & S.S. Sellamutu (2016). When local power meets hydropower: Reconceptualizing resettlement along the Nam Gnouang River in Laos. Science Direct, Geoforum 72 (2016): 6-15, Elsevier – 23 March 2016
Download here: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016718515302694
* Interview Vérité d’Anne-Sophie Gindroz, auteure de : “Au laos, la répression silencieuse” – Youtube – in French – March 20, 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=44iNzzMAcX8.
* Ian G. Baird (2014). Cambodia’s LS2 Dam is a disaster in the making. East Asia Forum – 9 August 2014
* J. Leslie (2014). Large Dams Just Aren’t Worth the Cost. NY Times, 22 August 2014
3) Hydropower Dams are constant sources of Green House Gases – Methane, CO2, Nitrous Oxide. NOT Green & Clean Energy.
* Deemer, B.R. et al. (2016). Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoir Water Surfaces: A New Global Synthesis. BioScience (2016), Vol. 20, No.10 – doi: 10.1093/biosci/biw117
* Fearnside, P.M. 2016. Tropical dams: To build or not to build? Science 351: 456-457. doi: 10.1126/science.351.6272.456-b [ Letter commenting on Winemiller et al. 2016] <publisher link>
* Fearnside, P.M. 2016. Greenhouse gas emissions from Brazil’s Amazonian hydroelectric dams. Environmental Research Letters 11 (2016) 011002 [open access] ISSN: 1748-9326 doi: 10.1088/1748-9326/11/1/011002 <Full text-L> <Free from publisher> http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/11/1/011002/meta
* Fearnside, P.M. 2016. Greenhouse gas emissions from hydroelectric dams in tropical forests. pp. 428-438 In: J. Lehr & J. Keeley (eds.) Alternative Energy and Shale Gas Encyclopedia. John Wiley & Sons Publishers, New York, E.U.A. 880 pp. ISBN: 978-0-470-89441-5). http://au.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1119066328.html <Preprint-L>
* Fearnside, P.M. 2016. Environmental and Social Impacts of Hydroelectric Dams in Brazilian Amazonia: Implications for the Aluminum Industry. In: World Development, Vol. 77, pages 48-65. Elsevier http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305750X15001965 <Preprint>
* Fearnside, P.M. 2015. Tropical Hydropower in the Clean Development Mechanism: Brazil’s Santo Antônio Dam as an example of the need for change. Climatic Change 131(4): 575-589. doi: 10.1007/s10584-015-1393-3 <Preprint-L> <Publisher link> <doi link> http://philip.inpa.gov.br/publ_livres/Preprints/2015/Fearnside-CDM-Santo_Antonio-Preprint.pdf
* Fearnside, P.M. 2015. Emissions from tropical hydropower and the IPCC. Environmental Science & Policy 50: 225-239. doi: 10.1016/j.envsci.2015.03.002 <PreprintL>
4) Hydropower Dams serious threat to the Mekong Delta.
* Mekong Delta sinks into the sea – News VietNamNet, March 22, 2017. http://english.vietnamnet.vn/fms/environment/175057/mekong-delta-sinks-into-the-sea.html?utm_source=Mekong+Eye&utm_campaign=0ecec10c5f-
* Dang Nguyen Anh et al. (2016). Assessing the Evidence: Migration, Environment and climate change in Viet_nam: p.32-33. International Organization for Migration (IOM), Geneva. 104pp. Download here: https://publications.iom.int/books/assessing-evidence-migration-environment-and-climate-change-viet-nam
* ‘Environmental refugees’ in Mekong River Delta expected in future, experts say – News VietNamNet, Nov. 2, 2016. http://english.vietnamnet.vn/fms/environment/166283/-environmental-refugees–in-mekong-river-delta-expected-in-future–experts-say.html
* Wright, Stephen (2016). Vietnam warns of dire impact from planned Mekong Dams. Phys.Org, April 5, 2016. https://phys.org/news/2016-04-vietnam-dire-impact-mekong.html#jCp
* Laos Announces Hydropower Push at International Conference – Voice of America, March 9, 2016
* Nguyen V.M., Nguyen V.D., Nguyen N.H., M. Kummu, B. Merz & H. Apel (2015). Future sediment dynamics in the Mekong Delta floodplains: Impacts of hydropower development, climate change and sea level rise. Global and Planetary Change 127 (2015) 22–33 – 13 Jan. 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09218181
Download here: https://www.academia.edu/20957409/Future_sediment_dynamics_in_the_Mekong_Delta_floodplains_Impacts_of_hydropower_development_climate_change_and_sea_level_rise
* Manh NV, Dung NV, Hung NN, Kummu M, Merz B, Apel H. (2015). Future sediment dynamics in the Mekong Delta: impacts of hydropower development, climate change and sea level rise. Global and Planetary Change 127: 22-33. doi: 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2015.01.001 http://www.wdrg.fi/publications/
* Residents in Vietnam’s Mekong Delta risk becoming environmental refugees: official – 29 April 2016
* Dandekar, P. & H. Thakkar (2014). Shrinking and Sinking Deltas: Major role of Dams in delta subsidence and Effective Sea Level Rise. SANDRP (South Asia Network on Dams, Rivers and People). Download here: http://sandrp.in/
* Kondolf, G.M., Z.K.. Rubin & J.T. Minear (2014b). Dams on the Mekong: cumulative sediment starvation. Water Resources Research 50(6): 5158-5169. – 27 June 2014
* Bosshard, P. & P. Dandikar (2014). Life-Giving Deltas Starved by Dams. – Huffington Post .
* Kuenzer C., Campbell I., Roch M., Leinenkugel P., Vo Quoc Tuan & Dec S. (2012). Understanding the impact of hydropower development in the context of upstream–downstream relations in the Mekong River basin. Sustain Sci., DOI 10.1007/s11625-012-0195-z, @ Springer Japan 2012.
Download here: https://www.academia.edu/20996071/Understanding_the_impact_of_hydropower_developments_in_the_context_of_upstream_downstream_relations_in_the_Mekong_river_basin
5) Hydropower Dams in Laos & Cambodia are being built on Human Rights Violations and Repression.
* Rujivanarom, P. (2017). Drowning out traditions. The Nation, January 30, 2017. http://www.nationmultimedia.com/news/life/special/30305102
* RFA (2017). Cambodian Villagers Displaced by Dam Complain of Nonarable Land, Access to Fishing. RFA, March 9, 2017. http://www.rfa.org/english/news/cambodia/cambodian-villagers-displaced-by-dam-complain-of-nonarable-land-acess-to-fishing-03092017160301.html
* Manorom,K., Baird, I.G. & B. Shoemaker (2017). The World Bank, Hydropower-based Poverty Alleviation and Indigenous Peoples: On-the-Ground Realities in the Xe Bang Fai River Basin of Laos. Forum for Development Studies, 2017http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08039410.2016.1273850
Download here: https://www.academia.edu/30734681/The_World_Bank_Hydropower-based_Poverty_Alleviation_and_Indigenous_Peoples_On-the-_Ground_Realities_in_the_Xe_Bang_Fai_River_Basin_of_Laos
* Vietnamese Authorities Arrest Two Bloggers For ‘Spreading Propaganda Against The State’. RFA, March 22, 2017. http://www.rfa.org/english/news/vietnam/vietnamese-authorities-arrest-two-bloggers-for-spreading-propaganda-against-the-state-03222017150557.html
* Philip Hirsch (2016). Laos mutes opposition to controversial Mekong dam.
In: Forging a new Course for the Mekong – China reshapes the Mekong – Downstream development in SE Asia. e-BOOK. https://s3.amazonaws.com/cd.live/uploads/content/file_en/6811/mekong__new14-2.pdf
* Ian G. Baird (2016): Non-government Organizations, Villagers, Political Culture and the Lower Sesan 2 Dam in Northeastern Cambodia. Critical Asian Studies – 23 March 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14672715.2016.1157958
Download here: https://www.academia.edu/23621311/Non-government_Organizations_Villagers_Political_Culture_and_the_Lower_Sesan_2_Dam_in_Northeastern_Cambodia
* Corredor, L. (2016). Cambodians Seek Compensation for LS2-DAM Relocation. Scientists for the Mekong, News – Feb. 2, 2016
* Laos: Come Clean on Activist’s ‘Disappearance’. Human Rights Watch. Dec. 15, 2016.
* Evrard, O. (2015). The silenced river – 24 November 2015
* Interview: Lao People Fighting For Change ‘Deserve Better Than Silence’ – Radio Free Asia, 16 February 2016
* Corredor, L. (2015). COP21 – Mekong Dolphin Extinction, Hydropower & Climate Change – 28 November 2015
* Laos : quand l’aide internationale nourrit la repression – 22 March 2016. https://asialyst.com/fr/2016/03/22/laos-quand-l-aide-internationale-nourrit-la-repression/
* Interview Vérité d’Anne-Sophie Gindroz, auteure de: “Au laos, la répression silencieuse” – Youtube – in French – 20 March 2016. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=44iNzzMAcX8
* Civil Society Condemns Escalating Intimidation of Human Rights Defenders – LICADHO, Cambodian League for the promotion and Defense of Human Rights – May 10, 2016
* ERI (2016). Human Rights Commission Report Highlights Lack of Accountability in Don Sahong Dam Project. Earth Rights international – 27 April 2016
* Mekong Commons (2015). Silence of the Dammed – Missing voices in Don Sahong. July 12, 2015.
* Bosshard, P. (2015). Dammed, Displaced and Forgotten. International Rivers – 27 March 2015
* Complaint to The Human Rights Commission Of Malaysia (SUHAKAM) Against Mega First Corporation Berhad, Project Developer of the Don Sahong Dam, Lao PDR – 20 October 2014
* Concern grows for jailed Cambodian activists amid civil rights crackdown – 10 Nov. 2015
* Open letter to Participants of the 2015 Lao Donor Round Table Meeting | Human Rights Watch, Nov. 5, 2015.
* Lao Court Jails Polish Activist Following Online Criticism of Government – 1 Nov 2015.
* Few Surprised as Laos Fails to Win U.N. Rights Council Seat – Oct 2015.
* Cambodian Activists jailed – Oct 2015. http://www.mothernature.pm
* Defiant activists deported – The Phnom Penh Post, 23 February 2015
* Activist Alex Arrested – The Phnom Penh Post, 23 February 2015
* Global Witness report ‘Deadly Environment’ –April 2014
* DFAT (2014). Making Performance Count: enhancing the accountability and effectiveness of Australian Aid – Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, Nov. 14, 2014.
Download PDF here: http://dfat.gov.au/about-us/publications/Pages/making-performance-count-enhancing-the-accountability-and-effectiveness-of-australian-aid.aspx
* Chiang Khong Declaration – by The Network of Thai People in Eight Mekong Provinces – 14 March 2014. http://www.mymekong.org/mymekong/?cat=15
* Cambodian police shoot dead leading anti-logging campaigner – The Guardian, April 2012
* Mekong dolphins on the brink of extinction– WWF Cambodia, 18 June 2009
* Report citing pollutants’ threat to dolphins draws furious govt rebuke – The Phnom Penh Post, 19 June 2009
* Dolphin Report ‘unscientific’: govt – The Phnom Penh Post, 25 June 2009
* Dolphin report could lead to false information charges – The Phnom Penh Post, 30 June 2009 http://www.phnompenhpost.com/national/dolphin-report-could-lead-false-information-charge
6) Hydropower Development in the Mekong Basin is focused on Trade Agreements that supersede the needs of the People, the Best Management of the Environment and Protection of Resources.
* ABC News 24 – Ullman, C., Greene, A. & S. Anderson (2016). Chinese donors to Australian political parties: who gave how much? – ABC News (Australian Broadcasting Corporation), August 21, 2016
*McColl,G. & P. Wen (2016). Foreign Minister Julie Bishop’s links to Chinese political donors. The SMH, August 26, 2016.
* Chinese political donations raise questions – Chinese companies are the biggest corporate donors to Australia’s major political parties. Courtesy ABC News 24.
* Cambodia, Sri Lanka and the China debt trap. Asia Times, March 27, 2017. http://www.atimes.com/article/cambodia-sri-lanka-china-debt-trap//
* B.Grimm Power allots B1.8bn for Laos. Bangkok Post: news, March 21, 2017. http://www.bangkokpost.com/news/asean/1218361/b-grimm-power-allots-b1-8bn-for-laos?
*Corredor, L. (2017). Cambodian Mekong Dams – The Elite & Trade Agreements vs. The Poor: news. February 23, 2017. https://www.scientists4mekong.com/cambodian-mekong-dams-the-elite-trade-agreements-vs-the-poor/
* China woos Mekong states with loan pledges – 24 March 2016